The Sioux claim to have driven them out of the Black hills, and in they were reported by Lewis and Clark as living on the North Platte. According to the Kiowa account, when they first, reached Arkansas river they found their passage opposed by the Comanche , who claimed all the country to the south.
Kiowa Indian Language
A war followed, but peace was finally concluded, when the Kiowa crossed over to the south side of the Arkansas and formed a confederation with the Comanche, which continues to the present day. In connection with the Comanche they carried on a constant war upon the frontier settlements of Mexico and Texas, extending their incursions as far south, at least, as Durango.
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Among all the prairie tribes they were noted as the most predatory and blood thirsty, and have probably killed more white men in proportion to their numbers than any of the others. They made their first treaty with the Government in , and were put on their present reservation jointly with the Comanche and Kiowa Apache in Their last out break was in in connection with the Comanche, Kiowa Apache, and Cheyenne. While probably never very numerous, they have been greatly reduced by war and disease.
Their last terrible blow carne in the spring of , when measles and fever destroyed more than of the three confederated tribes. The Kiowa did not have the gentile system, and there was no restriction as to intermarriage among the divisions, of which they have six, including the Kiowa Apache associated with their, who form a component part of the Kiowa camp circle. They Kiowa settled near the Cimarron River and ended up becoming close allies with the Apache.
In addition to horses, the Kiowa also practiced the Sun Dance and lived in tipis like the Plains Apache. These divisions became incredibly important during the Sun Dance where they were assigned particular places and the leaders held discussions. The Kiowa saw great importance in the extended family, especially in siblings. The oldest brother held the most authority in the family and the brothers had a responsibility to look after their sisters.otbiotracimry.gq
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The roles within the family units were divided up by gender. They were also responsible for the maintenance of all tools needed for these activities. The women were in turn responsible for the gathering of herbs, cooking, mending clothing, and caring for the children. The women were also responsible for the dogs and for preparing for travel.
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Men wore skin shirts and leggings and decorated their braided hair with wrappings. Children, generally, did not wear clothing. Within the tribe the Kiowa people had societies, The Principal Dogs was a well known society dedicated to fighting and warfare. The Kiowa fought in many wars against neighboring tribes and even took their fighting into Mexico.
They were also the primary source of conflict European peoples met upon coming to North America. During the Kiowa wars in the late s, the Kiowa became allies with the Comanche. Throughout these wars the Kiowa saw many leaders rise and fall, some of the most well known of these leaders were Sitting Bear and Little Mountain. The histories of the Kiowa are remembered through singing, dancing, and stories along with written stories taken down by past chiefs. The first settlers to have encountered the Kiowa are said to have been Lewis and Clark in along the Northern Platte River.
After this meeting the Kiowa did not have many dealings with colonialists for many years. They created an alliance with the Comanche, which lasted well into the 20th century, and fought over land with other nearby tribes such as the Apache and Cheyenne. The tribes were forced to make peace accords with the arrival of pioneers and traders along the Santa Fe and Butterfield trails.
After they acquired horses from the Spanish, their economy focused on equestrian bison hunting. They lived in large tepees and moved camp frequently in pursuit of game.
Kiowa warriors attained rank according to their exploits in war, including killing an enemy or touching his body during combat. Traditional Kiowa religion included the belief that dreams and visions gave individuals supernatural power in war, hunting, and healing. Ten medicine bundles, believed to protect the tribe, became central in the Kiowan Sun Dance. The Kiowa and the Comanche were instrumental in spreading peyotism see Native American church. The Kiowa were also notable for their pictographic histories of tribal events, recorded twice each year.
Each summer and winter from to , one or more Kiowa artists created a sketch or drawing that depicted the events of the past six months; in the early years of this practice, the drawings were made on dressed skins, while artists working later in the period drew on ledger paper. The National Anthropological Archives of the Smithsonian Institution contain a number of these extraordinary drawings.
Kiowa Tribal Divisions
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